January 2022

Shelter of Sastricó

The range of Obac, mainly in the municipality of Mura, has many shelters (in Catalan, balmes). The best known are those that are occupied by the most elaborate constructions, specifically the Puig de la Balma that shelters a large medieval house and the Balmes Roges that covers a set of vats of wine; but there … Read more

Parallel cracks in the limestone layer below El Pont Vell

The Pont Vell (= Old Bridge) on the Cardener river, in Manresa, was built above a resistant layer of nummulitic limestone rock. This layer of limestone slightly tilts to the north according to the general slope of the strata, therefore, it outcrops to a wider extent on the southern shore, that of La Guia. The … Read more

December 2021

Gypsum in the Guix fault, in Sallent

The name of the anticline-fault of El Guix (gypsum, in Catalan), in the south of Sallent, refers to the layers of gypsum that outcrop in the raised north block, near the axis of this tectonic structure. The pictures are taken from the cliff that the railway digs at the foot of the Cogulló mountain, which … Read more

Fault of El Guix (Sallent)

The Guix fault is a large tectonic accident that runs in a straight line of about 10 km from southwest to northeast, from the north of Santpedor to Horta de Avinyó, crossing the Llobregat river and the southern slopes of the Montcogul mountain range. It has its center, its maximum development and its greatest complexity … Read more

October 2021

September 2021


The naked hard rock surface of the river shores may have round holes of about a hand in diameter and slightly less in depth, from natural origin, which are known as potholes. The potholes can keep water from the rain or from the last flood of the river or stream. Potholes are mainly found in … Read more

Round shaped layer of sandstone

A well-defined layer of about 70 cm thick stands out by its rounded instead of laminar inner shapes in the sandstone that outcrops at the foot of the ridge of Roca Tinyosa (Manresa), a few meters past La Gola del Bigaire by the shore of river Llobregat. This is really unusual because sediments deposit in … Read more

July 2021

Halite speleothems

In the gallery of the Cardona potash mine that is named La Minilla and that can be visited through the service of the Salt Mountain Cultural Park, there are a lot of speleothems of the mineral halite, as in the natural caves of Forat Micó and Meanders of Salt, all of them inside the Mountain … Read more

The Old Bridge of El Pont de Vilomara, 04.07.2021

Part of the ICHN-Bages group on the Old Bridge of El Pont de Vilomara (Manresa) -the bridge of gothic style used by the Royal Path from Manresa to Barcelona to cross the river Llobregat- in the outing of 04.07.21 to the valley of Llobregat from La Salut de Viladordis looking at the two species of … Read more

The arch of Les Arnaules, 04.07.2021

Part of the ICHN-Bages group on the natural bridge or arch of Les Arnaules (Manresa), in the outing to the valley of Llobregat through La Salut of Viladordis, the summit of punta Sabata, the bridge of Les Arnaules, El Pont de Vilomara, can Roviralta, els Tres Salts, la Gola del Bigaire and La Salut de … Read more

June 2021

Cannonballs in sandstone

Sometimes, the sandstones from the Eocene marine in the district of Bages contain balls in the range of 2-15 cm diameter, from the same rock nature. In Geology, they are known as cannonballs. The outcrop of the sandstone can show them either in positive or convex relief in the so-called noisette shape, or in negative … Read more

April 2021

Stratification of Montserrat

The Montserrat massif is made of conglomerate with calcareous cement deep strata that are separated by more clayey strips. From this lithological composition results a geomorphology of stepped pyramid like that of the temples of the Central American Mayan culture. The total height of the conglomerates is about 1000 meters, from Monistrol to the summit … Read more

Big Shelter of Marganell

La Bauma Gran de Marganell (= the Big Shelter of Marganell) can be found in the left slope of the stream of Marganell, in the path of Guimberes that initiates in the cross between the roads to Marganell and to Sant Cristòfol. The Big Shelter is on upper part of the stream of Guimberes, in … Read more

December 2020

Smelly lepiota

Lepiota cristata

Agaricales » Agaricaceae

The smelly lepiota (Lepiota cristata) is a small, white mushroom with arranged concentrically, denser in the center than on the margin reddish-brown or mahogany scales on the cap. It looks like many species of the genus Lepiota and it is surely one of the most abundant in the district of Bages. First the cap is conical shape … Read more

November 2020

Nummulites striatus

Nummulites striatus


Gravel deposit made up of Nummulites striatus fossils from Maians (Castellfollit del Boix) in 1st image, from Colonia Jorba (Calders) in the 2nd image and from Les Marcetes (Manresa) in the 3rd. The biggest pieces measure 25 mm diameter, most of them round 10 mm. The Nummulites are the most characteristic fossils in the Eocene … Read more

October 2020


The caliche –from its Spanish name, sometimes also named calcrete- is a hard, compact and extensive crust that is found in depth in the soil due to calcareous cementation. It is light marbled colour and it includes, in variable proportions and sizes depending on the areas, particles of clay, silt, sand and gravel already existing … Read more


Fossils are material proofs of living organisms in the geological past. They are usually found into sedimentary rocks. They allow to know the age of these rocks and the environmental characteristics of the area when these organisms were alive. The source of the most common and known fossils in Bages is the sea. They come … Read more

Nummulitic limestone

The nummulitic limestones are made of cemented skeletons or shells of nummulites. Both, the nummulites and the cement are calcareous nature. Nummulitic limestones are characteristic from the Eocene epoch, in the Tertiary period. The nummulitic limestones deserve one close look. The lentil shaped fossils of nummulites are seen. The diametrally cut nummulites display their beautiful … Read more

Pool of La Llosa, stream of Guardiola

El gorg de la Llosa (= the pool of the Paving Stone) is located in the stream of Guardiola where it makes the boundary between the municipalities of Sant Salvador de Guardiola to the south and Manresa to the north, before the pool of L’Oller. The itinerary M-3 of the Green Belt of Manresa drives … Read more

Geological itineraries

Link to the digital format of the book Geological itineraries – Bages, Berguedà, Anoia, Solsonès that was published in 1981 by Centre d’Estudis Geològics Valentí Masachs. Valentí Masachs was the director and co-autor of this work that collects contributions from Antonio Gómez, Josep M. Mata, Francesc Porta, Antonio Ramírez and Mn Lluís Via. The book … Read more

Geological history

The study of the rocks that emerge to the surface of Bages district reveals their conditions and dates of origin. In geological views, the rocks in Bages are not too ancient. Most of them belong to the Tertiary period and some to the Quaternary. At the beginning of the sedimentation process that led to the … Read more

Rocks and minerals

INTRODUCTION Geografically, the district of Bages belongs to the Central Catalonian depression which is the eastern sector of the basin of the river Ebre. This low lands region borders on the mountain range of Pyrenees by the north, on the Catalonian Coastal range by the east and on the Iberian range by the south-west. During … Read more


INTRODUCTION Geografically, the district of Bages belongs to the Central Catalonian depression which is the eastern sector of the basin of the river Ebre. This low lands region borders on the mountain range of Pyrenees by the north, on the Catalonian Coastal range by the east and on the Iberian range by the south-west. During … Read more

September 2020

Roca Foradada and Cadireta d’Agulles in Montserrat

The massif of Montserrat spreads from east to west like a range. Its large, typical views are seen from the north -the district of Bages– or from the south -the districts of Baix Llobregat and partially Anoia. Opposite to this, Montserrat displays a compact look from east or west. However, the outline of La Cadireta … Read more

August 2020

Shelter of Balmes Roges (El Pont de Vilomara i Rocafort)

The Red Shelter (Les Balmes Roges) is located in the south slope of Puig Gili, in the municipality of El Pont de Vilomara i Rocafort.Like other natural shelters in the area of Rocafort, Mura and Rellinars, one thick layer of consistent conglomerate rock makes the roof and one prompt to disaggregate layer of sandstone makes … Read more

Coroebus undatus

Coroebus (= Coraebus) undatus

Coleoptera » Buprestidae

The flathead oak borer (Coroebus undatus [= Coraebus undatus]) is a beetle of the Buprestidae family that, in the larva stage, lives under the bark of the cork oak, in the germ layer called cambium that produces wood towards the interior and bark –in this case cork- outwards.In its larval stage, the flathead oak borer … Read more

Killer fly

Laphria marginata

Diptera » Asilidae

The killer fly (Laphria marginata) is a big, black colored, hairy horsefly. The trump, the appearance, its noisy buzzing and even its name are all really frightening. However, do not panic. It doesn’t feed mammal blood, it hunts over other flying insects instead. Once the innocent insect is kept, then the killer fly sucks its … Read more

Panther cap

Amanita pantherina

Agaricales » Amanitaceae

The panther cap (Amanita pantherina) is a graceful, slim mushroom with a shiny brown cap showing white spots that looks unmistakably as one species of the genus Amanita. It’s also one of the most poisonous. It grows from one egg or total veil that remains wrinkled and powdery at the stipe bottom, but several regular, … Read more

July 2020

Mountain of salt of Cardona

Mountain of salt of Cardona. In 1st, 2nd and 3rd pictures, the main view of the salt mountain; in the 4th picture, the folding of the plastic behaviour materials in the mountain of salt of Cardona. The evaporites of the Mountain of Salt of Cardona raised to the surface in one structure called diapir that … Read more

Gipsy moth

Lymantria dispar

Lepidoptera » Lymantriidae

The hairy worm of the evergreen oak is in fact the caterpillar of the gipsy moth (Lymantria dispar). These caterpillars live all together in nests made of holm oak leaves which are sticked by fine, silky filaments. The caterpillars eat mainly holm oak and cork oak leaves, but also can feed on leaves of fruity … Read more

Footbridge of can Poc Oli, Manresa 05.07.2020

Rejoined in Sunday 05.07.2020 after the confinement due to the coronavirus pandemic, the group of ICHN-Bages crosses the river Cardener on the footbridge of can Poc Oli, back from one walk through the Anella Verda (= green ring) of Manresa.The circular route was as follows: Pont Vell (= old bridge) of Manresa – Santa Caterina … Read more

Itinerary of the sundeck of Els Comtals, Manresa (Bages) 05.07.2020

Rejoined in Sunday 05.07.2020 after the confinement due to the coronavirus pandemic, the group of ICHN-Bages walks in the sundeck of Els Comtals, in the Anella Verda (= green ring) of Manresa.The circular route was as follows: Pont Vell (= old bridge) of Manresa – Santa Caterina tower – Les Escaletes and Els Esparvers pools … Read more

Alveolar erosion in the Tower of Breny (Castellgalí)

The sandstone of marine origin is the most common type of rock in constructions in the south-eastern part of the Bages where it outcrops, from the small barracks and walls in old vineyards to the monumental buildings as the cathedral of the Seu in Manresa. As a result of its calm sedimentation in horizontal layers, … Read more

Erosion in taffoni

Sandstones in the district of Bages often display holes like in the above picture that was obtained from Els Tres Salts (Sant Fruitós de Bages) cliff. The sculptural concavities over 10 cm diameter are named in Geology taffoni or tafoni (singular taffone or tafone) from Italian. Most of the concavities in the picture are tafoni, … Read more

June 2020

Velates schmideli

Velates schmideli (†)

Gastropoda » Neritidae

Velates schmideli, Chemnitz. Mollusc gastropoda from Eocene in Manresa (Bages); in images 1st and 2nd in side views, in 3rd in front view. In image 4th, Velates schmideli embedded into the sandy limestone of the lower layer of Cerithium in the range of Montlleó (Castellgalí). Velates schmideli is a snail with a poorly twisted, about … Read more

April 2020

Large psammodromus

Psammodromus algirus


The large Psammodromus (Psammodromus algirus) can be recognized by the two light lines in each side and by its really long tail. It distributes in the Mediterranean area where it is found in rocky clearings of the forest or by the streams.The 1st image displays a pair of individuals fighting. The details of the long … Read more


Viola alba ssp.dehnhardtii

Eudicotyledons » Violaceae

The violet (Viola alba ssp.dehnhardtii) is one of the few herbs of the holm-oak forest. When first sunny days arrive in February, the violet blossoms in the darkness of the evergreen oak forest. The blossom spans from February to May. Violet flowers have 5 petals, 2 up and 3 down; the one in the middle … Read more

March 2020

Natural shelter of can Ponç, El Bruc (Anoia), 15.02.2020

Part of the group of ICHN-Bages in the natural shelter of can Ponç, in the municipality of El Bruc (Anoia), in 15.02.2020. The stream of Pierola falls above the shelter of can Ponç.The journey visited the natural shelters of can Solà and can Soteras as well. [photos Jordi Badia (1st and 3rd) and Montserrat Porta … Read more

Natural shelter of can Soteras, 15.02.2020

Part of the group of ICHN-Bages in the natural shelter of can Soteras, in the municipality of Castellolí (Anoia), in 15.02.2020. The journey visited the larger natural shelters of can Solà and can Ponç as well. [photo Jordi Badia] Further information in Notícies de la ICHN nr.148.

Natural shelter of can Solà, El Bruc (Anoia), 15.02.2020

The group of ICHN-Bages in the natural shelter of can Solà, in the municipality of El Bruc (Anoia), in 15.02.2020.The natural shelter of can Solà is located in the highest stretch of the stream of Pierola, north from the road A-2. The shelter covers 3150 m2; it is the largest one in Catalonia. Its concave … Read more

Arch El Bruc (Anoia), 15.02.2020

The natural bridge or arch that is located somewhere between the plain of can Soteras and Sant Miquel de Vilaclara, in the municipality of El Bruc (Anoia). The outing from ICHN-Bages in 15.02.2020 visited it. [photo Jordi Badia] Further information in Notícies de la ICHN nr.148.

January 2020

Stereum hirsutum

Stereum hirsutum

Russulales » Stereaceae

Stereum hirsutum is a fungus that attacks holm oak dead wood. The basiodiocarps look like thin, wavy shells, until 8 cm diameter. A lot of them appear on fallen branchs and stamps of holm oaks. On top, the centre of the mushroom is hairy, blueish or greyish, while the external border is smooth and displays … Read more