September 2023

Castle of Castellcir or castle of Popa

The castle of Castellcir or castle of Popa is in this municipality of the district of Moianès, onto an isolated rocky cliff that elongates from SW to NE and that is eroded at the base. The rocky cliff is about 10-12 meters tall above the ridge in a vertical or overhanging wall. It dominates the … Read more

July 2023

Belvedere of Els Orris (Berguedà), 08.07.23

The ICHN-Bages group in the belvedere of Els Orris (Berguedà), near to the mountain port of Coll de Pal and looking at the mountain of Tosa d’Alp, in 08.07.2023. [photo Ferran Mota]

May 2023

Crossing Merlès creek, 27.05.2023

Part of the group crossing the creek of Merlès by an appropriate footbridge where it borders between the municipalities of Gaià (Bages) and Puig-Reig (Berguedà), during the ICHN-Bages naturalist outing on 27.05.2023. Realize the high flow rate and the brown colour of the water; the creek has recovered after the rains of the 2nd half … Read more

The drought in the cereal fields

The drought in the cereal fields The farmers of the Bages district, most of them elderly, do not remember a cereal harvest as miserable as the one in 2023. The drought continues since January 2021 and it has been especially severe in the last 9 months, from September 2022 to April 2023. It might last … Read more

April 2023

Stromatolithic limestone

Stromatolithic limestones are originated by stromatolites, these are made of microorganisms mucilaginous mats growing in shallow flooded, illuminated areas, usually in intertidal areas from flat and calm coasts. Stromatolites still exists, though they use to be much more abundant and extensive at the beginning of life, during the Archean eon. The biggest stromatolites are sinusoidal … Read more

March 2023

Mequinensa Mine Museum (Baix Cinca), 25.03.2023

The ICHN Bages group visiting the Mequinensa Mine Museum (Baix Cinca), on 25.03.2023. The mine is in fact one suitable to visitors museum displaying the successive lignite exploitation techniques that have been used in Mequinensa over 170 years. [photos Museums of Mequinensa]

Slope of Valcarreres (Baix Cinca)

The ICHN-Bages group listening about the vegetation in the slope of Vallcarreres that links the plateau of Los Monegros with the valley of river Cinca, in the municipality of Torrent de Cinca (Baix Cinca), on 25.03.2023. Before, the group had visited the Museum of History and the Museum of the Mine in Mequinensa; later on, … Read more

The reservoir of La Llosa del Cavall almost empty

The images of La Llosa del Cavall (Solsonès) reservoir from the river Cardener, on 03.12.2023, illustrate how serious is present water scarcity in Central Catalonia. Rain has been poor since January 2021. The reservoir is at 26% capacity; it contains 20.8 hm3 of water from 80 hm3 total capacity. The large reservoir of La Llosa … Read more

February 2023

Esplugues (Castellcir)

Esplugues, in the municipality of Castellcir, is a troglodytic house that uses a natural shelter as a roof. It has a ground and two floors. It was inhabited from an unknown date until 2002. The Esplugues house is located on the right bank of the Fontscalents stream. It has one Romanesque bridge in front to … Read more

Rainfall difference between the periods 2000-2021 and 1950-1999

The graphs show monthly precipitation averages for the periods 2000-2021 and 1950-1999, and their differences, recorded at the meteorological stations of Balsareny and Artés in the district of Bages, and Moià in the district of Moianès. Within the enormous interannual variability of rainfall, the averages that are obtained from a long enough time confirm a … Read more

Temperature difference between the periods 2000-2021 and 1950-1999

The graphs show the average monthly minimum and maximum temperatures for the years 1950-1999 and 2000-2021, as well as the differences between the two periods, from the weather stations of Artés (Bages), in the top gallery, and Moià (Moianès), in the bottom gallery. Both the minimum and the maximum temperatures, in all months and in … Read more

January 2023

Macaroni stalactites

The forms originated by the deposit of minerals on the walls of the caves are collectively called speleothems. The stalactites hanging from the ceiling are the most characteristic speleothems. And among the stalactites, the type generally known by the expressive name of macaroni -although this meaning is not officially registered- are likely the most beautiful. … Read more

December 2022

Range of Miralles (Anoia), 17.12.2022

Observation of the recovery of the vegetation in the range of Miralles (Anoia) that was burned by the forest fire that started on 24.07.21 in Santa Coloma de Queralt (Conca de Barberà), a year and a half after the fire during the outing from ICHN-Bages on 17.12.2022. The plants with the ability to sprout have … Read more

Discocyclina sp.

Discocyclina sp.


Discocyclina sp. is a fossil foraminiferous protozoan that appears in strata of marine Eocene. It looks as a 10-15 mm diameter thin disk of symmetrical faces, often not completely flat but somewhat wavy. Its thickness ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 mm, except for the thickest nipple in the centre. The whole surface is plenty of … Read more

November 2022

Sinkhole of Pla de Reguant (Súria)

On 05.06.2022 a sinkhole appeared in El Pla de Reguant, in Súria. In the following days, the sinkhole enlarged to about 18 meters in diameter by 3 meters deep. The collapse caused some white poplars to fall from the riparian forest. Subsequently, the sinkhole has been partially filled with water from the subsoil, from the … Read more

October 2022

Source of Sant Pau (Manresa, Bages), 16.10.2022

The participants to the outing through the sides of the river Cardener and the stream of Rajadell, called by the exhibition Ecoviure and the ICHN-Bages in 16.10.2022, arranged for the picture by the source of Sant Pau (Manresa). [photo Jordi Badia]

August 2022

Out of the storm scope

Summer storms in Catalonia usually originate and grow in the early afternoon in the Pyrenees area, where the mountains force the air to rise, promoting the condensation of atmospheric humidity and the formation of large clouds, to later move towards south while depleting. In many cases, the storm hits in points of Alt Berguedà without … Read more

July 2022

Hailstorm in the north of Plain of Bages, on 29.07.2022

The storm in 29.07.2022 afternoon left registers of 40 to 50 litres of water per square meter in many observatories in the Plain of Bages, also in Manresa, the district capital. Rather than the rain, the hailstorm above Santpedor, Pineda de Bages and Les Brucardes (Sant Fruitós de Bages) was exceptional. The image illustrates the … Read more

May 2022

Natural shelter of Mill of Bellús (Avià, Berguedà), 29.05.2022

The participants to the naturalist outing of ICHN-Bages to L’Ametlla de Casserres, in the natural shelter of Mill of Bellús (Avià, Baix Berguedà), in 29.05.2022. The stream of Graugés falls from the above the shelter. [photos Jordi Badia] Further information in Notícies de la ICHN nr.162.

Microfolds in Serrat del Maneló (Manresa)

The folds of the strata –anticlines and synclines with all variations and combinations you may think- change enormously in scale, from folds of kilometric length whose interpretation is often difficult in the overgrown or overly artificialized landscape, to microfolds of metric or centimetric size that can be seen closely in full. Sometimes, not always, the … Read more

Forest of Xamal (Fonollosa, Bages), 30.04.2022

The group of ICHN-Bages looking at the stratification of the forest and to the succession from pines to oaks in the forest of Xamal (Fonollosa, Bages), on 30.04.2022. [photo Jordi Badia]

March 2022


Operculina sp.


Operculina sp. is a genus of Foraminifera protozoa of the Nummulitidae family that also contains the well-known, often very common and visible in the nummulitic limestones of the Eocene in Central Catalonia, Nummulites. Operculina is also found in large number as fossil into nummulitic limestones; therefore, some of them should better be known as operculinic … Read more

Belvedere of Talló, in Castellgalí (Bages), 26.03.2022

The group of ICHN-Bages in the belvedere of Talló for a free of noises view of the so beautiful saw profile of the north face of Montserrat during the walk around Talló (Castellgalí, Bages), on 26.03.2022. [photos Montserrat Porta (1st), Jordi Badia (2nd) and Encarna Montes (3rd)] Further information in Notícies de la ICHN nr.161.

Field of Lledoners (Sant Joan de Vilatorrada), 13.03.2022

A part of the numerous participants in the protest walking against the reclassification to industrial of the Camp de Lledoners, in the plain of Les Torres de Bages, after the call of the environmental associations Meandre and Volunteers of Sant Joan de Vilatorrada, on Sunday 13.03.2022.In the 1st photo, part of the walkers going through … Read more

February 2022

The cluster of maritime pines in El Rauric (Rajadell), in 26.02.2022

The ICHN-Bages group in the cluster of maritime pines in El Rauric (Rajadell) in the outing of 26.02.22 to the valley of Servitge, the source of El Rauric and the summit of La Melera.In the 2nd picture, looking for the large cones of the maritime pine. [photos Jordi Badia (1st) and Elena Sicto (2nd)]

Natural pavements of lacustrine limestone

The lacustrine limestones occur in extensive layers of light-coloured hard rock into the geological formation Artés that is mostly made of reddish, easier to wash out shales and sandstones. If the terrain and the strata share the same slope and the top layer is a lacustrine limestone, the roof of this hard stratum may turn … Read more

January 2022

Natural floors of sandstone

Paths and trails, if lucky enough, may have stretches with a natural stone pavement as beautiful as practical. In the district of Bages, this happens often in the southeast area because their flat sandstone that laid down in a calm marine environment of a coastal platform. The natural stone floor corresponds to the roof of … Read more

Shelter of Sastricó

The range of Obac, mainly in the municipality of Mura, has many shelters (in Catalan, balmes). The best known are those that are occupied by the most elaborate constructions, specifically the Puig de la Balma that shelters a large medieval house and the Balmes Roges that covers a set of vats of wine; but there … Read more

Parallel cracks in the limestone layer below El Pont Vell

The Pont Vell (= Old Bridge) on the Cardener river, in Manresa, was built above a resistant layer of nummulitic limestone rock. This layer of limestone slightly tilts to the north according to the general slope of the strata, therefore, it outcrops to a wider extent on the southern shore, that of La Guia. The … Read more

December 2021

Gypsum in the Guix fault, in Sallent

The name of the anticline-fault of El Guix (gypsum, in Catalan), in the south of Sallent, refers to the layers of gypsum that outcrop in the raised north block, near the axis of this tectonic structure. The pictures are taken from the cliff that the railway digs at the foot of the Cogulló mountain, which … Read more

Fault of El Guix (Sallent)

The Guix fault is a large tectonic accident that runs in a straight line of about 10 km from southwest to northeast, from the north of Santpedor to Horta de Avinyó, crossing the Llobregat river and the southern slopes of the Montcogul mountain range. It has its center, its maximum development and its greatest complexity … Read more

October 2021

September 2021


The naked hard rock surface of the river shores may have round holes of about a hand in diameter and slightly less in depth, from natural origin, which are known as potholes. The potholes can keep water from the rain or from the last flood of the river or stream. Potholes are mainly found in … Read more

Round shaped layer of sandstone

A well-defined layer of about 70 cm thick stands out by its rounded instead of laminar inner shapes in the sandstone that outcrops at the foot of the ridge of Roca Tinyosa (Manresa), a few meters past La Gola del Bigaire by the shore of river Llobregat. This is really unusual because sediments deposit in … Read more

July 2021

Halite speleothems

In the gallery of the Cardona potash mine that is named La Minilla and that can be visited through the service of the Salt Mountain Cultural Park, there are a lot of speleothems of the mineral halite, as in the natural caves of Forat Micó and Meanders of Salt, all of them inside the Mountain … Read more

The Old Bridge of El Pont de Vilomara, 04.07.2021

Part of the ICHN-Bages group on the Old Bridge of El Pont de Vilomara (Manresa) -the bridge of gothic style used by the Royal Path from Manresa to Barcelona to cross the river Llobregat- in the outing of 04.07.21 to the valley of Llobregat from La Salut de Viladordis looking at the two species of … Read more

The arch of Les Arnaules, 04.07.2021

Part of the ICHN-Bages group on the natural bridge or arch of Les Arnaules (Manresa), in the outing to the valley of Llobregat through La Salut of Viladordis, the summit of punta Sabata, the bridge of Les Arnaules, El Pont de Vilomara, can Roviralta, els Tres Salts, la Gola del Bigaire and La Salut de … Read more

June 2021

Cannonballs in sandstone

Sometimes, the sandstones from the Eocene marine in the district of Bages contain balls in the range of 2-15 cm diameter, from the same rock nature. In Geology, they are known as cannonballs. The outcrop of the sandstone can show them either in positive or convex relief in the so-called noisette shape, or in negative … Read more

April 2021

Stratification of Montserrat

The Montserrat massif is made of conglomerate with calcareous cement deep strata that are separated by more clayey strips. From this lithological composition results a geomorphology of stepped pyramid like that of the temples of the Central American Mayan culture. The total height of the conglomerates is about 1000 meters, from Monistrol to the summit … Read more

Big Shelter of Marganell

La Bauma Gran de Marganell (= the Big Shelter of Marganell) can be found in the left slope of the stream of Marganell, in the path of Guimberes that initiates in the cross between the roads to Marganell and to Sant Cristòfol. The Big Shelter is on upper part of the stream of Guimberes, in … Read more